Prevention and control methods of the hottest fall

2022-08-08
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Prevention and control methods of high-altitude falling accidents the prevention and control methods of high-altitude falling accidents are to reveal the abnormal behavior of people, the abnormal state of things, and the abnormal combination of people and things. They are the laws that lead to and constitute high-altitude falling accidents. Their laws and the principles of accident prevention and control are applied, The scientific method of "promoting people and objects to move regularly and change their abnormal movement" in connection with the needs of safety management is essentially a scientific method to prevent and control High-altitude Falling Accidents in advance

the so-called high place operation refers to the operation at a height 2m above (including 2m) the datum plane where there is a possibility of falling. The casualty accident caused by falling during this operation is called falling accident from height. Such accidents occur in all industries, and most of them are construction enterprises, accounting for about 20% of all accidents

1 the law of falling accidents at heights

the law of falling accidents at heights is a universal manifestation that people combine with related objects during working at heights, and the abnormal movement that violates the laws of objective things is out of control, and the catastrophe occurs through quantitative change accumulation

1.1 falling accidents from height have classification rules

the classification rules of falling accidents from height are based on the falling mode of human body injury caused by falling accidents from height, which can be divided into the following nine types:

(1) falling from openings (reserved openings, passageways, stairs, elevators, balcony openings, etc.)

(2) falling from scaffold

(3) falling of suspended work at heights

(4) asbestos tiles and other light situations fall

(5) because peek has very good comprehensive physical, mechanical, electrical, thermal, chemical and other properties, the falling occurred in the demolition project

(6) falling during climbing

(7) operation falling on ladder

(8) roof falling

(9) falling of other high-altitude operations (falling of iron tower, electric pole, equipment, framework, tree, and other objects, etc.)

1.2 cause law of falling accidents at heights

cause law of falling accidents at heights refers to the universality of specific causes that lead to the recurrence of similar accidents due to people's violation of the laws of objective things during work at heights. Specifically, it can be divided into individual cause law and common cause law

1.2.1 personality cause law

personality cause law refers to the specific cause law of each type of falling accident during the continuous injection molding cycle. For example:

(1) the specific causes of portal falling accidents mainly include: the body loses balance due to careless portal operation; Fall into the hole by mistake when moving; Sitting and lying on the edge of the hole to rest; There is no safety protection at the portal; The safety protection facilities are not firm, damaged and not handled in time; There are no eye-catching warning signs, etc

(2) the specific causes of falling accidents on the scaffold mainly include: stepping on the probe board; Trampling, tripping, slipping and falling when walking; When operating, the body loses balance due to bending, turning and accidentally bumping the rod; Sit on railings or scaffolds to rest and play; Stand on the railing for operation; The scaffold board is not fully paved or paved unevenly; No protective railings are bound or damaged; No safety protection layer is laid under the operation layer; Overload and fracture of scaffold

(3) the specific causes of falling accidents of suspended work at heights are as follows: the foothold is narrow, the operation is too hard, the body is out of control, and the center of gravity exceeds the foothold; The sole of the foot slips or accidentally steps empty; Falling with heavy objects; Physical discomfort and out of control action; Not wearing the safety belt or not using it correctly, or removing it while walking; The safety belt hook is not firm or there is no firm hook

(4) the specific causes of roof cornice falling accidents mainly include: the roof slope is greater than 25 °, and there are no anti-skid measures; Careless cornice operation on the roof, resulting in body imbalance; Cornice components are not firm, or are trampled off, and people fall with them

1.2.2 common cause law

common cause law refers to a series of cause laws formed by basic causes, root causes, indirect causes and direct causes during the occurrence of any high-altitude falling accident

(1) the basic reason is that the safety foundation of work at heights is not solid. The performance is that people do not meet the safety requirements for work at heights, and objects do not meet the safety standards for use. For example, the personnel engaged in work at heights lack safety thoughts and safety skills, and their physical conditions are poor; As well as the defects of various objects and safety protection facilities related to high-altitude operation, which provide conditions for the occurrence of high-altitude falling accidents

(2) according to the reason, it is the abnormal movement of work at heights against the building law. Its performance is that the safety rules and regulations are not perfect, rules are not followed, commands and operations against rules. If the clothes of the personnel engaged in high-altitude operation do not meet the safety requirements, and there are no safety measures for high-altitude operation, they risk and act recklessly, violating the labor discipline and drinking operation; And the safety protection facilities are incomplete and ineffective, and some are demolished, moved or damaged during construction without timely repair, which provides a basis for the occurrence of falling accidents

(3) the indirect cause is that the abnormal movement of work at heights is out of control. It shows that due to the lax safety management, there is no effective safety restriction means, the abnormal behavior of people working against regulations that does not meet the safety requirements, and the abnormal state of tools, equipment and other substances that do not meet the use safety standards, they can not be found and changed in time, forming a natural development, thus providing a quantitative change process for the occurrence of falling accidents

(4) the direct cause is that the abnormal movement of work at heights has been catastrophic. It shows that due to the loss of control over the abnormal behavior of people and the abnormal state of objects, after the abnormal accumulation of quantitative changes, when the combination of people and objects has a catastrophe, such as people falling from the hole, from the scaffold, from the equipment, from the pole, etc., resulting in personal injury, thus constituting a high-altitude falling accident

2 key points of prevention and control of falling accidents from height

according to the objective requirements of safety management, using the movement law of safety and accidents and the need of preventing and controlling accidents due to the continuous progress of technology and market segmentation, the universal metal material testing machine shows the situation of two series and four types of hydraulic and electronic Jinan assays. Although the impact testing machine seeks to be advanced in technology, it is a development trend, However, in the coming period, due to the influence of price, cost, manufacturing difficulty and other factors, all kinds of experimental machines will still compete and coexist in the market. Only by deeply understanding the advantages and disadvantages from the aspects of control characteristics, structural situation, important parameters and so on, can we select suitable product laws, so as to change the abnormal behavior of people, abnormal state of objects, and abnormal combination of people and objects, and effectively prevent and control falling accidents from high places in essence, It is divided into specific prevention and control and comprehensive prevention and control

2.1 specific prevention and control of falling accidents

specific prevention and control of falling accidents is to put forward specific prevention and control points for each type of falling accidents according to the specific causes of different types of falling accidents. For example:

(1) key points for prevention and control of portal falling accidents: solid and effective safety protection facilities (cover plate, fence, safety) must be set at the reserved opening, passage opening, stair opening, elevator opening, loading platform opening, etc; If the protective facilities at the entrance are damaged, they must be repaired in time; It is forbidden to move or remove the protective facilities at the entrance without authorization; Be careful when operating near the hole, and do not work with your back to the hole; Do not rest near the hole, make trouble, cross the hole or walk on the hole cover; At the same time, eye-catching warning signs must be hung at the portal

(2) prevention and control points of falling accidents on scaffold; Scaffold shall be erected and scaffold board shall be paved according to regulations. No probe board is allowed; The protective railings shall be bound firmly and hung safely; The load of scaffold shall not exceed 270kg/m2; If the scaffold is too wide from the wall, safety protection shall be provided; The scaffold erection acceptance and use inspection system shall be implemented, and problems found shall be handled in time

(3) key points for prevention and control of falling accidents of suspended work at heights: strengthen the construction plan and the cooperation of all construction units and types of work, make full use of safety facilities such as scaffolds, and avoid or reduce suspended work at heights; Operators shall be more careful to avoid excessive force and body instability; Operators working at heights must wear soft soled anti-skid shoes and correctly use safety belts; It is not suitable to work at heights in the air if you are sick, tired or depressed

(4) key points for prevention and control of roof cornice falling accident: Operators on the roof shall wear soft bottom anti-skid shoes; Anti skid measures shall be taken when the roof slope is greater than 25 °; When working on the roof, do not move back to the cornice; The external scaffold shall be used for construction. The external upright shall be 1.2m higher than the cornice, and shall be hung safely. The external scaffold of the cornice shall be covered with scaffold boards; If no external scaffold is used for construction, a safety device shall be set under the eaves

2.2 comprehensive prevention and control of high falling accidents

comprehensive prevention and control of high falling accidents are the key points for comprehensive prevention and control of high falling accidents according to the cause laws of different categories and series of high falling accidents

(1) regular safety publicity and education and safety technology training shall be carried out for personnel engaged in high-altitude operation to make them understand and master the rules and hazards of high-altitude falling accidents, firmly establish safety ideas and have the ability to prevent and control accidents, and strictly implement safety laws and regulations. When they find that they or others have abnormal behaviors of illegal operation, or that objects and protective measures related to high-altitude operation are abnormal, It should be changed in time to meet the safety requirements, so as to prevent and control the occurrence of falling accidents

(2) the physical condition of personnel working at heights shall meet the safety requirements. For example, personnel with hypertension, heart disease, anemia, epilepsy and other diseases unsuitable for work at heights are not allowed to engage in work at heights; Stop working at heights for personnel who are excessively tired, depressed and depressed; It is forbidden to work at heights after drinking

(3) personal clothing of personnel working at heights shall comply with safety requirements. For example, safety helmet, safety belt and relevant labor protection articles shall be provided according to actual needs; Do not wear high heels, slippers or work barefoot; Wear soft soled anti-skid shoes when working at heights. It is not allowed to climb the scaffold or take the basket of the material well frame, nor jump up and down from a high place

(4) various scaffolds shall be erected as required. For example, when the shelf height reaches more than 3m, each layer shall be bound with two guardrails, a toe board shall be set, the scaffold board shall be paved tightly, the board head and row wood shall be bound firmly, and no probe board shall be left

when using bridge scaffold, special attention shall be paid to whether the bridge pile and wall are firmly and properly capped. When raising and lowering the bridge, the safety rope shall be hung and the lifting at both ends of the bridge shall be kept synchronized. Workers who lift the bridge shall hang the safety belt on the column of the bridge. The sling tools for lifting the bridge shall comply with the design standards and safety regulations

when using the hanging basket rack and hanging rack, the sling must be firm. When the hanging basket rack is in use, it is also necessary to hang the safety rope or safety fixture. Safety when lifting the basket

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